Arctic Answers

Knowledge PyramidKnowledge Pyramid

Policy-relevant questions are answered in 1-2 page briefs written by experts and posted in Arctic Answers. Each brief is the top of a "knowledge pyramid" supported by scientific literature organized in underlying tiers of increasing detail.

To read a brief or see the supporting literature, click on the question. PDF’s are available by clicking on “Download Brief.”

For further information on a topic or to suggest edits or updates, contact the experts listed for each question.

To suggest additional questions to be addressed on Arctic Answers or to volunteer to author a brief, contact Brendan Kelly (bpkelly [at] When a proposed question is accepted for inclusion as an Arctic Answer, the author will receive a manuscript number and further instructions. Each brief will be reviewed for scientific accuracy and accessibility to readers with broad backgrounds.

Sea Ice Questions

Expert Contacts

Science Brief

What do we know about the future of Arctic sea-ice loss?

Marika Holland & Walt Meier

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 750 KB)

How is diminishing Arctic sea ice influencing lower latitude weather patterns?

Jennifer Francis & Stephen Vavrus

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 393 KB)

Arctic Meltdown and Unruly Tropical Storms: Are They Connected?

Jennifer Francis

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 218 KB)

How is diminishing Arctic sea ice influencing coastal communities?

Henry Huntington & Matthew Druckenmiller

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 2.9 MB)

How is diminishing sea ice influencing marine ecosystems?

Brendan Kelly

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 1.9 MB)

How will the diminishing sea ice affect commercial fishing in the Bering Sea?

George Hunt, Lisa Eisner, Neysa M. Call

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 1.5 MB)

How is Climate Change Affecting Subsistence (Or Traditional) Fisheries in the High Arctic?

Courtney Carothers, Andrew Seitz, Trent Sutton

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 146 KB)

When will the Arctic Ocean become ice-free?

Stephen Vavrus & Marika Holland

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 313 KB)

How predictable are Arctic sea ice conditions?

Marika Holland & Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 415 KB)

Permafrost Questions

Expert Contacts

Science Brief

Developing knowledge pyramids answering questions about permafrost.

Erin Trochim

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 1.8 MB)

Climate Change & the Permafrost Carbon Feedback

Ted Schuur & Christina Schaedel

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 712 KB)

How is permafrost degradation affecting ecosystem services?

Erin Trochim & Ted Schuur

in review

How is permafrost degradation affecting infrastructure?

Erin Trochim & Ted Schuur

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 1 MB)

Land Ice Questions

Expert Contacts

Science Brief

How is land ice changing in the Arctic & what is the influence on sea level?

Ted Scambos & Twila Moon

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How fast is sea level rising?

Waleed Abdalati & Ted Scambos

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How fast is the Greenland Ice Sheet melting?

Ted Scambos, Fiamma Straneo, & Marco Tedesco

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How are melting Arctic sea-ice & land-ice linked to sea-level rise?

Jennifer Francis, Ted Scambos, & Marco Tedesco

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How does land motion influence sea level rise?

Carling Hay, Kristy Tiampo & Matt King

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 282 KB)

Cross-cutting Questions

Expert Contacts

Science Brief

Can extreme Arctic climate change be avoided with cost effective mitigation?

Dee Williams

PDF icon Download Brief (PDF - 437 KB)